Ed 250 Ed. Psych.

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For Questions, Problems, or Progress Reports, E-Mail Dr. Osborne
ozpk@earthlink.net

WELCOME TO EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY--A Distance Learning {"Any time, Any place} Course of Five Essential Questions and Resources. This is a distance learning course, concentrating on uses of the Internet for teaching, learning and professional development. It also is intended to give you enough web sites and leads-in to more web sites to be a continuously useful resource for your learning and doing.

Assessment is based on work you produce in a PORTFOLIO. By portfolio, I mean a file folder or notebook with a short essay/listing for each topic you "connect with," and with annotated lists of sites supporting your views and reflecting your web work.

For instance, you might write ?he site XXXX [http://www.xxx.com] gave me a different perspective on how to help students learn _____. It also cleared up for me something I was confused about, and that is what educators mean by __________.?Certainly you would want to elaborate more.

By the specified due dates for this course your work is to be emailed to me at ozpk@earthlink.net or snail-mailed to me at Chad C. Osborne 923 W. Mission St., Santa Barbara, CA 93101.

Include a self-addressed stamped envelope if you wish mailed work to be returned. If you email the work, you may wish to put it in a Zip file, which compresses text and makes it easier to send over the Internet.

SHARED INQUIRY

*1*Participate in a SHARED INQUIRY Team, related to your course work.

Each link on this page has links to other pages?ith those often having further links. This is the nature of the Internet. In working on this course, I suggest that in each section/essential question, you ?urvey?links and ?ookmark?ones you think you want to read closely. Then go back and review your selections to decide what to include in your Portfolio. This will combine scope and depth, and enable you to compile a Portfolio of most use to you.

Notice how USING THE INTERNET TO DEVELOP THE COMMON TEACHING COMPETENCIES addresses all the standards and becomes a tool for your preparation and continuing work in teaching!

An underlying assumption for this course is that the current "teaching-to-the-test furor is both based on false ideas [see DEPTH vs. "COVERAGE" in TEACHING and STANDARDIZED TEST PREP] and on little understood historical and political factors behind current schooling and standardized testing [see ARE SCHOOLS INTENTIONALLY DUMBED DOWN?].

FIELD EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

Key Course Search Sites: GOOGLE [Highest rated single search engine]

DOGPILE [Top rated multiple search engine].

Try to work at a pace of one good writing for each essential question EVERY WEEK. Each Question is seeking YOUR thoughts and opinions, based on the sites on this page. There are no predetermined answers, which is why it is important for you to explain your views. YOU are responsible for keeping up with web work.

YOUR WORK ON THESE WEB ASSIGNMENTS IS TO BE KEPT AS A PORTFOLIO. {By portfolio, I mean a file folder or notebook with a short essay/listing for each topic you "connect with," and with annotated lists of sites supporting your views and reflecting your web work.

Your answers for questions 2 through 5 should include a LIST of POSSIBLE ideas and approaches and a PLAN selecting what you feel are the most promising ideas for how you would approach each essential problem.

Each Essential Question can at various points in the course be addressed through Brainstorming and Creative Problem Solving. Check out sites on CREATIVITY to understand more of what this means.

Note that each Essential Question has evaluation criteria.

Readings Used in Preparation of This Course

ESSENTIAL QUESTION 1: WHAT DO YOU "MAKE" OF REFORM?

[Be sure your "answer" addresses the teacher test, MCAS, and curriculum content and process.]

Part 1: *1*Essay Excerpts by John Gatto suggest a true but little known series of historical contexts for today's testing controversy. Then consider the following:

HARD TRUTHS

Advocates of school reform would do well to consider the "Hard Truths" about the deep structure of schooling,Barbara Benham Tye explores in her book by this title (Teachers College Press, 2000). Consistent with the failure of past reform cycles to last beyond a three to five year cycle, and the lack of transfer of successful practices from one context to another, Tye? insights help explain why what can hope to be changed in schools are the ?ersonality factors?oving pieces around within a box. She favors change, but cautions that incremental change is the only kind that schooling can tolerate. The box, the deep structure, is not simply the factory-like structure of school organization, or the persistence of teacher-centered classroom traditions. Tye asserts it is the "conventional wisdom" of unexamined assumptions held in our culture. The ones she enumerates are

1. Schools are chaotic, dangerous places.
2. Teaching is an easy job, with lots of time off.
3. Too much money is spent on schools.
4. Schools today are not doing a good job of teaching the basics.
5. A quiet classroom is one where learning is taking place.
6. The most effective teaching is traditional frontal, and teacher-directed.
7. Children should be grouped by age and ability.
8. Parents should participate in running the schools.

Given these unexamined assumptions, and the influence they have in current society, is it any wonder that we have growing movements in

Charter Schools

Homeschooling, and

Unschooling?

  • *1*Psychological Bars To School Improvement -- Read and contemplate the four barriers discussed by this author of Schools of Hope, Douglas H. Heath: Not Listening to and Respecting Students; Trivializing the Value of Education; Creating Schools That Are Unhealthy Social Systems; and Stagnating in Denial.

    MCAS testing and the increasing teacher shortage are sure to fuel the continued growth of these movements.

    Case in Point 1: The Teacher Test and MCAS Testing.

    *1*MCAS: WHY IS THIS BEING DONE TO OUR KIDS?

    *1*Helps for MCAS Preparation for Teachers and Students**Check this site out!

    Gatto's UNDERGROUND HISTORY OF AMERICAN ECUCATION TOUR

    Differing Viewpoints

    STUDENT PERFORMANCE TODAY

    The State of the States

    Here is a final section for you to consider thoughtfully in this inquiry. Think about the role of thinking time in your own learning, of privacy and solitude, of these diminishing and essential ingredients of intelligence and intellectual and emotional growth. React to the reading in this inquiry.

    Excerpt from *1*Why Schools Don? Educate
    by John Taylor Gatto
    This is from the text of a speech by John Taylor Gatto accepting the New York City Teacher of the Year Award on January 31, 1990.

    Here is the calculus of time the children I teach must deal with:

    1. Out of the 168 hours in each week, my children sleep 56. That leaves them 112 hours a week out of which to fashion a self.
    2. My children watch 55 hours of television a week according to recent reports. That leaves them 57 hours a week in which to grow up.
    3. My children attend school 30 hours a week, use about 6 hours getting ready, going and coming home, and spend an average of 7 hours a week in homework - a total of 45 hours. During that time, they are under constant surveillance, have no private time or private space, and are disciplined if they try to assert individuality in the use of time or space.
    4. That leaves 12 hours a week out of which to create a unique consciousness.
    5. Of course, my kids eat, and that takes some time - not much, because they've lost the tradition of family dining, but if we allot 3 hours a week to evening meals,
    6. we arrive at a net amount of private time for each child of 9 hours [per week!].

    I want to tell you what the effect is on children of taking all their time from them - time they need to grow up - and forcing them to spend it on abstractions. You need to hear this, because no reform that doesn't attack these specific pathologies will be anything more than a facade.

    1. The children I teach are indifferent to the adult world. This defies the experience of thousands of years. A close study of what big people were up to was always the most exciting occupation of youth, but nobody wants to grow up these days and who can blame them? Toys are us.
    2. The children I teach have almost no curiosity and what they do have is transitory; they cannot concentrate for very long, even on things they choose to do. Can you see a connection between the bells ringing again and again to change classes and this phenomenon of evanescent attention?
    3. The children I teach have a poor sense of the future, of how tomorrow is inextricably linked to today. As I said before, they have a continuous present, the exact moment they are at is the boundary of their consciousness.
    4. The children I teach are ahistorical, they have no sense of how past has predestined their own present, limiting their choices, shaping their values and lives.
    5. The children I teach are cruel to each other, they lack compassion for misfortune, they laugh at weakness, and they have contempt for people whose need for help shows too plainly.
    6. The children I teach are uneasy with intimacy or candor. My guess is that they are like many adopted people I've known in this respect - they cannot deal with genuine intimacy because of a lifelong habit of preserving a secret inner self inside a larger outer personality made up of artificial bits and pieces of behavior borrowed from television or acquired to manipulate teachers. Because they are not who they represent themselves to be the disguise wears thin in the presence of intimacy so intimate relationships have to be avoided.
    7. The children I teach are materialistic, following the lead of schoolteachers who materialistically "grade" everything - and television mentors who offer everything in the world for free.
    8. The children I teach are dependent, passive, and timid in the presence of new challenges. This is frequently masked by surface bravado, or by anger or aggressiveness but underneath is a vacuum without fortitude.

    I could name a few other conditions that school reform would have to tackle if our national decline is to be arrested, but by now you will have grasped my thesis, whether you agree with it or not. Either schools have caused these pathologies, or television, or both. It's a simple matter [of] arithmetic, between schooling and television all the time the children have is eaten away. That's what has destroyed the American family, it is no longer a factor in the education of its own children. Television and schooling, in those things the fault must lie.

    Gatto's book, The Underground History of American Education (Oxford Village Press, 2000), gives complete background and sources for understanding the intentional "dumbing down" of public education to create a consumer and working class basis for commercial profit. Gatto says it was not a conspiracy as such that brought this about, but numerous factors and the implicit bargain of giving up our freedom and quality schooling in exchange for prosperity and a higher material quality of life. It is now becoming apparent, however, that the bar is set too low for either human good or the future prosperity of corporations.

    Do you agree? Before concluding this first question, read several of the online essays by John Taylor Gatto, especially *1*The Public School Nightmare: Why fix a system designed to destroy individual thought?

    ** ARE THERE ANY SOLUTIONS?

    ***1*Parker Charter Essential School in Ayer, Mass. (on the former Ft. Devens grounds) is the best example of a public school moving in the direction of a high quality, democratic education. Check out their curriculum, assessment, and other online resources!

    The ***1*Coalition of Essential Schools also has numerous links showing how SOME schools avoid the problems Gatto cites.

    **Tools for Small Schools has resources to aid in converting big schools into several smaller schools--the single most powerful reform method.

    **The *1*Catalog of School Reform Models lists numerous efforts to find better ways to educate students.

    **Empowering Students: Essential Schools' Missing Link shows the process and difficulties experienced as teachers turn more responsibility for learning over to students.

    **Lastly, two positive yet difficult directions for positive, productive reform are 1) Small Schools By Choice, meaning breaking big schools down into "houses" or "clusters" of 70-120 students each. This helps students and teachers to know each other better--and results in higher attendance, achivement, and less violence. Smaller school units also make it easier to bring about 2) Parent and Family Engagement as a Reform Strategy. Give consideration to both of these dimensions of reform in this inquiry.

    Essential Question 2: IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT I USE ASSESSMENT TO HELP MY STUDENTS LEARN MORE AND AT DEEPER LEVELS?

    [Be sure your "answer" addresses the impact of classroom assessment, multiple measures, especially RUBRICS,and self-evaluation.]

    If schools are to succeed, it will be due in large part to reforming assessment practices. The sites listed below reflect educators' efforts to assess deeper levels of understanding, higher levels of thinking, and student performance on more life-like tasks. Most authentic assessment, as indicated by the links below, moves from measuring fact memory to measuring indicators of understanding and thinking skills. Thus reformed assessment is key to overcoming negative effects of Standardized Testing with its effect of influencing teaching toward lower level knowledge-without-context.

      *1*ASSESSMENT by SUBJECT AREA

      English Language Arts

      If education reform is to succeed, it will be due in large part to the reform of assessment practices. The sites listed below reflect educators' efforts to assess deeper levels of understanding, higher levels of thinking, and student performance on more life-like tasks. Most authentic assessment, as indicated by the links below, moves from measuring fact memory to measuring indicators of understanding and thinking skills. Thus reformed assessment is key to overcoming negative effects of Standardized Testing with its effect of influencing teaching toward lower level knowledge-without-context.


        ASSESSMENT by SUBJECT AREA

        English Language Arts

      1. **Rubrics! -- Great site to help you evaluate students most fairly and to help them learn to self-evaluate in all areas of English!
      2. English Rubrics
      3. **Types of Assessment
      4. **Theory Meets Practice in Language Arts Assessment
      5. **English Rubrics for Grades 7, 8 and 9
      6. **Assessment Resources

        Mathematics

      7. **Rubrics! Great site to help you evaluate students most fairly and to help them learn to self-evaluate in all areas of Math!
      8. Math Rubrics
      9. **Types of Assessment
      10. **Assessment Resources
      11. **Assessment in Mathematics Teaching
      12. **ASSESSMENT IN MATH TEACHING
      13. **AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT IN MATHEMATICS HOME PAGE

        Social Studies

      14. **Rubrics! Great site to help you evaluate students most fairly and to help them learn to self-evaluate in all areas of the Social Studies!
      15. Social Studies Rubrics
      16. **Assessment Resources
      17. **Types of Assessment

        Sciences

      18. **Rubrics! Great site to help you evaluate students most fairly and to help them learn to self-evaluate in all the sciences!
      19. Science Rubrics
      20. **Assessment Resources
      21. **Alternative Assessment In Science
      22. **ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE--ERIC Digest
      23. **California Portfolio Assessment in Science
      24. **Types of Assessment

      25. ASSESSMENT -- Critical issues and resources in assessment from Pathways for School Improvement
      26. Assessment in the Coalition of Essential Schools
      27. Using Outcomes
      28. Performances and Exhibitions: The Demonstration of Mastery
      29. TEACHING for HIGH STANDARDS --Eye-opening article on assessment in the broader context
      30. Student Self-Assessment: Making Standards Come Alive
      31. Rethinking Accountability -- Best balanced approach to assessment!
      32. LOOKING AT STUDENT WORK -- Fascinating sites reflecting recent efforts to take student work seriously as the focus for determining what needs to be done and improved in assessment.
      33. Model School Accountability Programs -- Best Practices in real schools!
      34. FAIR TEST PRINCIPLES AND INDICATORS -- What do testing authorities say ought to characterize fair uses of tests?
      35. TOOLBOX for ACCOUNTABILITY -- Best practice resources from the Annenburg Institute
      36. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT from Michigan Electronic Library -- Numerous sites to get a handle on authentic assessments
      37. USING RUBRICS -- Extensive array of exemplar and how-to sites
      38. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT -- ERIC summary of best insights into this topic
      39. Assessment in the Learning Organization -- Extensive online excerpts from an ASCD book!
      40. IMPROVING AMERICA'S SCHOOLS -- Newsletter putting alternative assessment in the context of educational reform
      41. RELATED LINKS -- Assessment research from UCLA
      42. TrackStar: ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENTS AND PORTFOLIOS -- 27 links for specific subject areas and issues
      43. PORTFOLIOS IN ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION -- ERIC Digest of projects using portfolios as a teaching and assessing tool in classrooms
      44. AN INTRODUCTION TO USING PORTFOLIOS IN THE CLASSROOM
      45. PROJECT MOST: ASSESSMENT INDEX -- Chart of characteristics and advantages/uses of different modes of alternative assessment
      46. EXAMPLES OF CLASSROOM BASED ASSESSMENT -- Alaska's adaptation of Kentucky's authentic evaluation techniques for both process and content in all subjects
      47. LEADERSHIP RUBRIC -- Kentucky's tool for evaluating principals and other leaders
      48. SAMPLE ASSESSMENTS -- History, science, and mathematics assessment rubrics
      49. Types of Assessment
      50. Backward Design
      51. Establishing Curricular Priorities
      52. National Tests and Education Reform: Are They Compatible?
      53. Critical Issue: Rethinking Assessment and Its Role in Supporting Educational Reform [Read links from this key page!]
      54. ASSESSMENT TOOL KIT
      55. LOOKING AT STUDENT WORK
      56. THE AUTHENIC STANDARDS MOVEMENT AND ITS EVIL TWIN
      57. A Difficult but Awesome Design for Assessment
      58. WHOLE-CLASS SELF MONITORING
      59. RUBRICS! Superb Site!
      60. PARKER CHARTER SCHOOL [Click on "Curriculum & Assessment," and scroll down to yor subject area. Click here for evaluation RUBRICS in your discipline.]
      61. Assessment, Evaluation, and Curriculum Redesign
      62. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
      63. Rethinking Accountability
      64. TESTING 1...2...3 Preparing students for Standardized Tests
      65. The Immorality of Giving tests for Grades in Teaching
      66. GRADE INFLATION
        and
      67. Lessons on Constructing Good Tests is a site with Power Point presentations on constructing traditional tests.

      Essential Question 3: IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT I MOTIVATE MY STUDENTS TO LEARN MORE AND DEEPER WHILE MAINTAINING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR IN MY CLASSES?

      [Be sure your "answer" addresses discipline and classroom management issues (teacher and school), effects of student choice in assignments and activities and voice in how the class is run and they are evaluated, Success/Achievement vs. Fear/Failure Orientations, and a variety of approaches.

      The following sites relate to this essential question.

      1. ARE STUDENTS CHANGING?

        Marshall McLuhan said, "We shape our tools; thereafter, our tools shape us." Have video and computer games, e-mail and cell phones, MTV and the Internet re-shaped student learning styles? The first two articles suggest such shaping has taken place, and the third gives examples of educational responses.

        1. DIGITAL LEARNING: Why Tomorrow's Schools Must Learn To Let Go of the Past

        2. *1*TWITCH SPEED: Reaching Younger Workers Who think Differently

        3. *1*School-To-Work Transition

        4. Simulations and Learning

        1. English Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms - Sheltered Instruction: A major concept for working with English Language Learners. Use this with the next site that will allow any teacher or learner to get an instant Spanish traslation of any text, up to four pages at a time, or web site! Texts, or portions of texts can be scanned and translated, tests, etc.
        2. FreeTranslation.com -- Free translation of web sites and text for Spanish, French, and German to English and English to Spanish! AMAZING!! Another Translation site is Systran!
        3. LEARNING STRATEGIES** -- An important part of effective biliteracy and sheltered instructionstrategies

        4. Understanding *1*ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT is key to insight into what motivates teens.
        5. MOTIVATION and LEARNING, Chapter 1 of the book by this title; great explation of making intrinsic motivation work, although it goes against the grain of public schooling, as the Gatto articles explain.
        6. *1*Empowering Students: Essential Schools' Missing Link Key article for understanding how and why to make classroom learning more democratic--a key to the motivation/active learning problem.
        7. Student Motivation To Learn -- Good overall picture!
        8. *1*Personality and Differential Motivation in the Classroom -- Note the very enlightening Review of Literature section in this study. You'll also find key research on Success/Achievement vs. Fear/Failure Orientations.
        9. *1*****HOW TO DEVELOP STUDENT CREATIVITY -- Creativity is "at risk" during adolescence, and this site suggests ways teachers can see that their students realize this potential during one of the last periods it can be stimulated.
        10. Some Ideas for Motivating Students
        11. *****1*DISCIPLINE & CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
        12. *1*Goal Setting and Learning -- Try teaching students to set goals and work on persistence; the results are awesome!
        13. HOMEWORK: Too Much of a Good Thing?
        14. NATIONAL SLEEP FOUNDATION ISSUES A WAKE UP CALL TO EDUCATORS: BE ALERT TO SLEEP NEEDS AND HABITS OF TEENS
        15. Essential Questions in Teaching and Learning -- Activating students' higher mental and emotional capacities to overcome "high stakes" testing's trivialization of learning.
        16. Questing the Web: Web Quests As Essential Questions -- A highly motivating class-wide inquiry strategy
        17. Personal "Energy Audit" -- Do this mini-workshop to sense how managing your energy level will aid both your and students' motivation.
        18. MOTIVATION IN THE CLASSROOM
        19. MOTIVATING SECONDARY STUDENTS TO LEARN
        20. MOTIVATING STUDENTS TO LEARN
        21. FUN BRAIN[Learning Games to Help with motivation]
        22. ERIC Digest: STUDENT MOTIVATION TO LEARN
          [Check out bibliography links to articles]
        23. MOTIVATING STUDENTS
        24. **ATTRIBUTION THEORY
        25. Take this CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STYLE QUIZ
        26. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT LINKS
        27. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
        28. **TEACHING for RESILIENCY shows positive, preventative and recovery appraches that are particularly promising. Reflect on some of these sites on the Discussion Board.
        29. My Hero: Teacher Heroes Inspiring!
        30. Give particular attention to the links in What Is the HEART?
        31. An Interview with Joseph Chilton Pearce is an eye-opening overview of pre-school factors that have a chilling effect on motivation. Reprint and carefully read with highlighting and annotating this article, noticing the effects of birthing practices and television watching in particular.
        32. INFORMAL EDUCATION -- Some students need education outside schools in order to prosper. In fact, we all do!

        Essential Question 4: IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT I ADAPT MY TEACHING FOR INCLUDED SPECIAL ED. STUDENTS (including GIFTED) AND THOSE FROM DIFFERENT CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC BACKGROUNDS SO THEY CAN LEARN MORE AND DEEPER?

        [Be sure your "answer" addresses practices that will help all students, especially inclusion, differentiated instruction, multiple intelligence, and a variety of approaches.]

        The following sites will give you resources for developing your ideas and answersfor this essential question.

        1. *1*IN-SITES for INCLUSION
        2. ThinkQuest theAbleDisAbled
        3. Teaching English Language Learners
        4. Special Education and the Real Meaning of LD
        5. DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION - Research shows a tremendous "undertow" in teaching toward "one size fits all" procedures of teachers working with the whole class. Strategies to help all students include learning logs and peer assisted learning.
        6. Double Entry Journals and Learning Logs
        7. Assessing Students with Interactive Collaborative Learning Logs
        8. Study Buddy - The "buddy system" applied to learning
        9. Insites for BILINGUAL EDUCATION
          "Brain Gym" and "One Brain" demonstrate the power of MOVEMENT activities to reverse learning disabilities.
        10. The Brain Gym Connection
        11. Brain Gym
        12. ONE BRAIN
        13. The Institute of Heartmath
        14. ADD/ADHD and Brain Gym
        15. Emotional I.Q. and Multiple Intelligences
        16. INCLUSION
        17. FAMILY VILLAGE SCHOOL
        18. INCLUSION HOME PAGE
        19. INCLUSION - Table of Contents
        20. ALL THE BEST ANSWERS FOR AT-RISK, TROUBLED, ADD, TRUANT YOUTH
        21. BASIC SKILLS
        22. DOCUMENTS ON DEPRESSION and SUICIDE
        23. BECOMING A BRILLIANT STAR
        24. CONTENT-SPECIFIC LEARNING STRATEGIES DATABASE
        25. MULTICULTURAL TEACHERS' CORNER
        26. PBS: The MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOM
        27. DIVERSITY IN AMERICA
        28. FACING HISTORY AND OURSELVES
        29. PBS RECOMMENDED WEB SITES ON RACE AND RACE RELATIONS
        30. RESOURCES for DIVERSITY

        Essential Question 5: IN WHAT WAYS MIGHT I USE LEARNING THEORIES TO HELP MY STUDENTS LEARN MORE AND DEEPER?

        [Be sure your "answer" addresses differences in control ideology for differing approaches, "goodness of fit" to your teaching/learning desires, and blending of approaches.]

        OR do an Inquiry based on a topic from In-sites for Educators.

        Using following sites, develop an eclectic combination of approaches and foundations for answering this culminating essental question.

        1. A Vision and Plan for Reinventing Teacher Education
        2. *1*FUNDERSTANDING: ABOUT LEARNING--THEORIES
          Important to consider each of these
        3. HOW PEOPLE LEARN: BRAIN, MIND, SCHOOL & EXPERIENCE
        4. SUCCESS in the INFORMATION AGE: A Paradigm Shift
        5. CONSTRUCTIVISM: In Brief
        6. PIAGET
        7. BEHAVIORISM AS A LEARNING THEORY
        8. BEHAVIORISM
        9. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY and ITS APPLICATION to EDUCATION
        10. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY: FROM MASLOW TO THE 21ST CENTURY
        11. MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
        12. HUMANISTIC THEORY
        13. Humanistic Psychology, Humanistic Education, Somatics and Wellness, Social Issues/Action Resources, and Spirit and the Sacred
        14. HOWARD GARDNER: THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
        15. JEROME BRUNER'S CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY
        16. CREATIVITY
        17. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
        18. A TRANSACTIONAL MODEL of the TEACHING/LEARNING PROCESS