Why are so many students just unwilling to try to succeed in school? Why do so many show little or no initiative when given opportunbities to choose activities or assignments? Why do so many need direction and seem to lack internal motivation and "locus of control"? These links explore the phenomenon of LEARNED HELPLESSNESS, which in our era of rapid change and fractured family life has reached epidemic proportion. Recent work in the neurosciences suggests alteration of brain structures from neglect during the first three years of life that is associated with learned "helplessness." Cognitive Therapists like Martin Seligman have pioneered teaching optimism through "reprogrammed" inner speech messages. This is a productive area of study for anyone in education!