Based on Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks, Mathematics
Grades 5-6 (p. 42); Grades 7-8 (p.45)


Why do students have problems with probability? Isn't it one of the more interesting topics in mathematics? Batting averages, the lottery, insurance rates, the chance of being audited by the IRS?

Maybe the problem is that teachers don't spend much time on or even cover Probability. This page has links to help teachers and students, and can be adapted for auto-tutorial practice, as well. This is a productive area for work in improving mathematics understanding and performance.

  1. Exploring Probability
  2. Using Probability
  3. Independent Events -- Check out these sites, which are chock full of creative activities that help students understand probability concepts!

  4. Introduction to Probability -- Sample Spaces -- Events and Complements
  5. Mutually Exclusive Events
  6. Addition Rules for Probability
  7. Perimeter and Area Challenge Exercises
  8. Independent Events
  9. Dependent Events
  10. Area of Parallelograms
  11. Conditional Probability
  12. Challenge Exercises
  13. Challenge Exercise Solutions -- Each of these sites has lessons, activities and challenge questions about probability.

  14. Middle School Probability -- Dr. Math empties his archives ... from beginner to advanced level, here are TONS of example problems, lessons and answers to FAQ's regarding a cornucopia of Middle School Probability questions. It's all here!
  15. Basic Probability -- Introductory lesson in probability concepts from Dr. Math.
  16. Introductory Probability Lessons -- Lots of well-organized information about probability - includes probability rules, interpreting odds, determining possible outcomes, and probability distributions.
  17. Intro to Probability : Sample Spaces -- Part of an on-line lesson series in probability, students learn how to construct sample spaces, and get information on basic probability rules.
  18. More Probability Rules -- Part of an on-line lesson series in probability, students learn about conditional probabilities, dependent and independent events, and mutual exclusivity
  19. Probability in the Real World -- A look at probabilities and how their use touches our lives, using coin flips, batting averages and the lottery as examples!
  20. Sampling -- Part of an on-line lesson series in probability, this page looks at 5 methods of sampling (with an innovative lab exercise involving a TV Guide®).
  21. Conditional Probability -- Dr. Math discusses conditional probabilities, with an example problem that determines the probability of drawing a red or blue marble from a bag.