* Teach metacognitive strategies. Teach readers similarities and differences between speech sounds and visual patterns across words.

* Provide direct instruction in language analysis and the alphabetic code. Give explicit instruction in segmenting and blending speech sounds. Teach readers to process progressively larger chunks of words.

* Use techniques that make phonemes more concrete. For example, phonemes and syllables can be represented with blocks where readers can be taught how to add, omit, substitute, and rearrange phonemes in words.

* Make the usefulness of metacognitive skills explicit in reading. Have readers practice them. Try modeling skills in various reading contexts. Review previous reading lessons and relate to current lessons.

* Discuss the specific purposes and goals of each reading lesson. Teach readers how metacognitive skills should be applied.

* Provide regular practice with reading materials that are contextually meaningful. Include many words that readers can decode. Using books that contain many words readers cannot decode may lead to frustration and guessing, which is counterproductive.

* Teach for automaticity. As basic decoding skills are mastered, regularly expose children to decodable words so that these words become automatically accessible. As a core sight vocabulary is acquired, expose readers to more irregular words to increase reading accuracy. Reading-while-listening and repeated reading are useful techniques for developing fluency.

* Teach for comprehension. Try introducing conceptually important vocabulary prior to initial reading and have children retell the story and answer questions regarding implicit and explicit content. Teach children the main components of most stories (i.e., character, setting, etc.) and how to identify and use these components to help them remember the story.

* Teach reading and spelling in conjunction. Teach children the relationship between spelling and reading and how to correctly spell the words they read.

* Provide positive explicit and corrective feedback. Reinforce attempts as well as successes. Direct instruction and teacher-child interactions should be emphasized.


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