Suppose "that struggling adolescent readers are not beginning readers in need of remedial instruction in phonics or decoding skills." Rather suppose "they are inexperienced readers who need help acquiring and extending the complex comprehension processes that underlie skilled reading in the subject areas." Suppose, too, that an apprenticeship model can be used "to model, direct, support, and shape the [student's] developing reading practices," and demystify what proficient readers do. These are the assumptions of current work with high school students, including ninth graders who gain two years of proficiency in seven months, and continue to grow at this accelerated rate into and through their tenth-grade studies, as described in these links and articles. (Apprenticing Adolescents to Academic Literacy, Executive Summary: link 7 below)
Cathleen Kral, instructional leader for literacy and director of literacy coaches for Boston Public Schools, credits the West Ed Strategic Literacy Initiave with having "the smartest stuff out there for secondary literacy: it's realistic, it's authentic it's research based, and it works."

Reading Apprenticeship and Strategic Literacy

  1. Strategic Literacy Initiative at West Ed
  2. Adolescent Literacy: Policies, Research & Resources
  3. Small Schools Project: Strategic Literacy Tools
  4. Research Matters (English Journal): Reading Apprenticeship
  5. Reading For Understanding--Chapter Two: “The Reading Apprenticeship Framework”
  6. Reading Process Analysis
  7. Apprenticing Adolescent Readers to Academic Literacy
  8. 1996-1999 9th Grade Academic Literacy Course Studies
  9. Apprenticing Adolescents to Reading in Subject-Area Classrooms
  10. Professional Development for Literacy: Building a Community of Readers
  11. Reading Happens in Your Mind, Not in Your Mouth: Teaching & Learning Academic Literacy in an Urban High School
  12. Adolescent Literacy
  13. Effective Support of Adolescent Literacy at the High School Level is Critical
  14. Equity Drives Essential Schools' Push for Adolescent Literacy
  15. “At-Risk” Adolescents: Redefining Competence Through the Multiliteracies of Intermediality, Visual Arts, and Representation
  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Reading -- including "chunking"
  17. Reading Apprenticeship: A Powerful Tool for Improving Science Literacy
  18. Strategic Literacy Initiative Research Base
  19. 1996 - 1999 9th Grade Academic Literacy Course Studies
  20. Teen Book Links
  21. Reading Rants: Out of the Ordinary Teen Book Lists -- much more effective than "lextile matching"
  22. Mosaic ListServ Tools -- Numerous links for helpful strategies and handouts based on Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop by Susan Zimmermann & Ellin Oliver Keene
  23. Thinking Strategies Used Consistently by Proficient Readers
  24. Reading Strategies
  25. Writing Skill Links
  26. Reading Skill Links
  27. Writing Workshop
  28. Reading Comprehension
  29. Comprehension Work Sheets
  30. Study Guides and Strategies
  31. Sustained Silent Reading
  32. Scaffolding Website
  33. Using Graphic Organizers in Instruction
  34. Using Think Aloud Strategies to Improve Comprehension
  35. CLOZE Activities--To Teach Comprehension and to Prepare for the Developmental Reading Power Tests
  36. Reciprocal Teaching: A Comprehensive Comprehension Strategy
  37. Literacy Matters -- an amazing array of resources

Sheltered English

  1. Sheltered English Instruction. ERIC Digest.
  2. Sheltered English Instruction
  3. The Effects of Sheltered Instruction on the Achievement of Limited English Proficient Students
  4. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol: A Tool for Teacher-Researcher Collaboration and Professional Development
  5. Teaching Diverse Learners
  6. Sheltered English: Techniques for Ensuring Comprehension
  7. Writing in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  8. Reading in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  9. Listening in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  10. Speaking in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  11. Metacognition in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  12. Technology and Information Literacy in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  13. Refugees in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  14. Strategies for New Arrivals
  15. Teaching Strategies in ESL/Sheltered High School Classes
  16. P I Z ZA Z !...People Interested in Zippy and ZAny Zcribbling -- simple creative writing and oral storytelling activities with copyable (yes, copyable!) handouts for use with students of all ages
  17. CATESOL Position Statement On Specially-Designed Academic Instruction in English (Sheltered Instruction)
  18. Facilitating Transition to the Mainstream: Sheltered English Vocabulary Development
  19. In-Sites for Teaching English Language Learners


  1. Multicultural Theories
  2. Hispanic or Latino Populations
  3. Immigration
  4. Immigration : 1700's-2000
  5. The Origin of "The Cult of Ethnicity" (Multiculturalism)
  6. Democracy versus the Melting Pot: A Study of American Nationality
  7. Mass Immigration Melts the Pot Itself
  8. Culturally Responsive Education

Critical Pedagogy

  1. The Vision Thing, or How to Teach Reading the Wor(l)d
  2. Rage & Hope: Freire and Others
  3. Paulo Freire Institute
  4. The Questia Online Library: Paolo Freire
  5. Paulo Freire and the 'Pedagogy of Hope'
  6. Reviews of Paulo Freire's Books


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